We Need Anything And Everything You Have On “PRESCRIPTION ERROR STATISTICS”.
Do NOT send in a Comment. Send to email@example.com.
I cannot stress strongly enough how important this is.
CAUSES OF ERRORS
Pharmacists generally believe that the risk of dispensing errors is increasing. In one survey, this view was held by 82% of pharmacists.18 A number of reasons for errors are cited by pharmacists in surveys and studies designed to examine the causes of errors, including high prescription volume, distractions, shortage of support personnel, look-alike/sound-alike drug names, inadequate opportunity to counsel, illegible handwriting, and fatigue. It is well known that the volume of prescriptions has been on an upswing.
Most Common Causes of
Errors Cited By Pharmacists
1 Too many telephone calls (62%)
2 Overload/unusually busy day (59%)
3 Too many customers (53%)
4 Lack of concentration (41%)
5 No one available to double-check (41%)
6 Staff shortage (32%)
7 Similar drug names (29%)
8 No time to counsel (29%)
9 Illegible prescription (26%)
10 Misinterpreted prescription (24%)
Many pharmacists intuitively believe that job stress can have a deleterious effect on their performance. One analysis of stress has suggested that it may have four different adverse effects on the cognitive system, which may increase error rates and interfere with error detection.16 Stress may increase the rate of information processing and may lead to exceeding the optimal capacity for processing information. Thinking about stressful events may distract attention away from critical tasks. Stress may lead to alterations in work patterns and shortcuts that may promote inaccurate behavior. Stress may also cause cognitive systems to default to responses that emphasize past habits instead of recently learned adaptive strategies.
In addition to contributing to dispensing errors, an increased workload also increases the likelihood of dispensing a medication that could cause a drug–drug interaction. A survey of pharmacists in 18 metropolitan areas revealed that drug–drug interactions increased with pharmacy or pharmacist workload, increasing by approximately 3% for each additional prescription dispensed per hour.24 The authors attributed this to a reduction in the time available to assess potential interactions.
The relationship between workload and errors is not simple. Some studies have failed to show a correlation between higher workload and higher error rates. One study failed to find an association between the rate of potentially serious errors and increasing work volume in a high-volume, hospital-based, outpatient pharmacy.25 Nevertheless, this study detected variations in the error frequency depending on the time of day, with peak error occurrence noted during the lunch hour and the hour before closing.
In another research report, pharmacists were found to be most vulnerable to making an error when they were less busy, or during a dramatic shift in the number of prescriptions presented (i.e., going from high to low and vice versa).16 This was especially prevalent in high-volume settings. One explanation provided is that when pharmacists are especially busy, their mental faculties are highly engaged, and they are very focused on their tasks. During slower periods, boredom may contribute to lack of attention and more errors. The author emphasized that workload alone could not predict a pharmacist’s performance, although he acknowledged that working at a faster pace increases job-related tension. The author concluded that the quality of a pharmacist’s performance was also determined by personal attributes, such as how the pharmacist perceived and responded to workload conditions. Pharmacists who were more satisfied with their jobs and the quality of their breaks made fewer errors even though they filled more prescriptions per hour than those who were less satisfied. Other sources of stress also contributed to errors. For example, pharmacists who reported high levels of stress in dealing with third-party payers made more errors than those reporting less stress.
Other factors in addition to sheer workload volume have an impact on errors. The Massachusetts Board of Registration in Pharmacy conducted a retrospective pilot study in an attempt to identify causative factors associated with medication errors.26 The study revealed that pharmacists perceive a number of different elements as causative factors for medication errors (TABLE 2)
Now, you are talkin’. Throw the rest of the bull shit excuses in the garbage can in the offices of the MASTERS OF THE UNIVERSE.
THIS NEXT IS A SERIOUS QUESTION. NEW WRITEN PRESCRIPTION FOR Budesonide 3 mg tid. The veteran, competent pharmacist dispensed Risperdal 3m mg qd. Can any of you even imagine, invent how this could happen? The patient is a 92 year old female. I don’t get this one. If the Rx was typed by a technician, what happened? If it was typed by the pharmacist, what happened?
Do you agree that this error would have been discovered and corrected in the counseling process?
The pharmacist says to the patient’s daughter, “This medicine for your mother’s schizophrenia has side effects.”
“WHAT? WHAT SCHIZOPHRENIA?”
We have a duty to warn. Legal, professional & ethical duty.
If this woman is harmed, should the pharmacist pay or should his employer be held accountable for the standard of care that ignores he pharmacist’s duty to warn? As fact, counseling is seen as an unnecessary and time consuming event that causes the employer to be at a competitive disadvantage.
Have we allowed our industry to sink this low? Where profit is king and MBA non-pharmacist Masters of the universe ruin our profession?
You can get it back, you guys. Just practice pharmacy and dare them to tell you that, for example, you cannot counsel because it is an unnecessary time-waster.